Crop Update 8/1/14

Southern rust of corn confirmed in Clay County July 31.  This was found on one leaf in a field near Trumbull.  Just because southern rust has been found in the area, we don't recommend automatically spraying.  Scout your fields and consider disease pressure, growth stage, and economics.  Long season corn and late-planted fields have the potential for most damage.

Southern rust of corn confirmed in Clay County July 31. Very small, tan-brown lesions on upper surface of the leaf, usually in clusters.  Spores inside the pustules are typically orange.  This was found on one leaf in a field near Trumbull. Just because southern rust has been found in the area, we don’t recommend automatically spraying. Scout your fields and consider disease pressure, growth stage, and economics. Long season corn and late-planted fields have the potential for most damage.  Secondary common rust sporulation has also been confused as southern rust as the secondary pustules tend to look like this.  It’s important to obtain microscopic confirmation to know for sure if you have southern rust in your fields.

Spores of southern rust appear elongated vs. common rust appear as near perfect circles.

Microscopic Observation:  Spores of southern rust appear elongated vs. common rust appear as near perfect circles.

Another common problem is old common rust lesions being confused as gray leaf spot.  The color of this lesion is a tan-gray, typical of gray leaf spot.  Using backlighting or a handlens, you can see the pustules within this lesion confirming it is common rust and not gray leaf spot.  I've had many calls that gray leaf spot was up the entire plant in their fields and after looking at fields, have found it to be common rust in most situations.  It's important to know what disease you truly have to make the best decision on fungicide application.

Another common problem is old common rust lesions being confused as gray leaf spot. The color of this lesion is a tan-gray, typical of gray leaf spot. Using backlighting or a handlens, you can see the pustules within this lesion confirming it is common rust and not gray leaf spot. I’ve had many calls that gray leaf spot was up the entire plant in their fields and after looking at fields, have found it to be common rust in most situations. It’s important to know what disease you truly have to make the best decision on fungicide application.

Have also received questions on soybeans, particularly in dryland.  Soybeans are drought stressed-often showing it in pockets within dryland fields right now.  Closer observation shows plants aborting pods and losing lowest leaves.  Spidermites can also be viewed on leaves in some of these patches.

Have also received questions on soybeans, particularly in dryland. This photo is showing drought stressed soybeans-often occurring in pockets within dryland fields right now. Closer observation shows plants aborting pods and losing lowest leaves. Spidermites can also be viewed on leaves in some of these patches.

Dryland corn showing stress as well.  June rains were making for dryland crops with potential, but also led to shallow rooting.  Crops could use a drink right now....but would prefer no more ice and hail.  The storm that hit Clay County so hard occurred one year ago today.

Dryland corn showing stress as well. June rains were making for dryland crops with potential, but also led to shallow rooting. Crops could use a drink right now….but would prefer no more hail and tornadoes. The storm that hit Clay County so hard occurred one year ago today.

Oysters… Fun Fact Friday

jenreesources:

Some great information from Dr. Lindsay Chichester on oyster farming in Alabama.

Originally posted on Agri-Cultural with Dr. Lindsay:

This past week 1,300 agricultural focused extension folks from around the nation gathered in Mobile, Alabama for our annual conference. There are always great presentations, posters, vendors, and conversations that provide educational opportunities. But we also have a chance to go on a day tour to learn more about something in the area. This year I selected an oyster and crawfish tour. Certainly not something we have much of in Nebraska, but it was very interesting. Today I want to share with you some of the fun facts I learned about oysters.

— Oysters are animals and can be grown in off-bottom gardens. Off-bottom means the oysters are grown in baskets, bags, cages, etc. that are suspended in the water, versus on the bottom of the water source. Off-bottom gardens protect the oysters from predators and helps keep them safe from getting buried in bottom of the water sediment.

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Oyster…

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Alabama Agriculture-What I learned

At our first stop, this farming operation had fields where peanuts were strip cropped between rows of pecan trees.  He went from 1500 to 900 pecan trees after the hurricanes in the 1980s.  The pecan trees were around 80 years old.

At our first stop, this farming operation had fields where peanuts were strip cropped between rows of pecan trees (shown in background). The farming operation went from around 1500 to 900 pecan trees after the hurricanes in the 1980s. The pecan trees were around 80 years old.

Peanut plant up close.  The soils in this part of Alabama are highly acidic and peanuts like  a pH between 5.8-6.8, so the producers add quite a bit of lime.  Different maturities of peanuts are grown so they're harvested anywhere from September to October.

Peanut plant up close. The soils in this part of Alabama are highly acidic and peanuts like a pH between 5.8-6.8 and well-drained soil, so the producers add quite a bit of lime. Different maturities of peanuts are grown so they’re harvested anywhere from September to October.

Sweet potatoes!  I absolutely love to eat them :)  This farm had tried a variety of crops in the past and continues to grow cotton and peanuts as well for a rotation with the sweet potatoes.  With low commodity prices for the other crops, sweet potatoes provided another source of income.  They are planted mid-April and will be harvested early August this year.  The smaller sweet potatoes will go to a canning facility.  Potatoes have to be at least 2" in diameter to be processed for sweet potato fries.

Sweet potatoes! I absolutely love to eat them :) This farm had tried a variety of crops in the past and continues to grow cotton and peanuts as well for a rotation with the sweet potatoes. With low commodity prices for the other crops, sweet potatoes provided another source of income. They are planted mid-April and will be harvested early August this year. The smaller sweet potatoes will go to a canning facility. Potatoes have to be at least 2″ in diameter to be processed for sweet potato fries.

The nephew of the sweet potato farmer was interested in value-added herbs and greens.  He put up this greenhouse 11 months ago and has been growing hydroponic greens and herbs for high end restaurants and supermarkets.

The nephew of the sweet potato farmer was interested in value-added herbs and greens. He put up this greenhouse 11 months ago and has been growing hydroponic greens and herbs for high end restaurants and supermarkets.

A cotton plant.  Cotton is actually in the hibiscus family and can get 5-7 feet tall.  Growth regulators are used to keep the cotton short so more energy goes into producing cotton instead of vegetative material like leaves and branches.  The "square" (at top,  middle of picture) is where each cotton blossom and seed will be produced.

A cotton plant. Cotton is actually in the hibiscus family and can get 5-7 feet tall. Growth regulators are used to keep the cotton short so more energy goes into producing cotton instead of vegetative material like leaves and branches.  While not easily seen on this picture, the “squares” are where each cotton blossom and seed will be produced.

Auburn specialist explaining how a cotton plant puts on a new node (where flowers and seed are produced) about every 3 days.  He was also showing the shortened internode length due to adding growth regulators to the cotton.

Auburn Extension Specialist explaining how a cotton plant puts on a new node (where flowers and seed are produced) about every 3 days. He was also showing the shortened internode length due to adding growth regulators to the cotton.  Cotton was often no-tilled into wheat.  They have similar findings as we do here regarding the improved yields of crops following wheat in dryland.  Although, interestingly, they receive on average 66″ of rain a year and Mobile, AL has surpassed Seattle as the rainiest city in the U.S.

Soybean Management Field Day

jenreesources:

Plan to attend the soybean management field day near Shickley this year! Great information for your operation!

Originally posted on Views from VanDeWalle:

Each year Soybean Management Field Days is held at 4 different locations across Nebraska. This year, Fillmore County is fortunate to host one of these programs. On August 13, 2014 at the Stengel farm near Shickley, with registration at 9:00 a.m. and the program running from 9:30 – 2:30 p.m. this educational event will occur. One hour presentations will occur aimed at providing important research based data to soybean producers.MussmanField 003

Specifically, topics will include:

  • Herbicide applications, water quality and resistance management (demonstrations of herbicide drift with discussion on how to mitigate drift with new herbicide-resistant traits, how weed growth affects herbicide performance, etc.)
  • Growth development and growth enhancement products (soybean growth and development, how yield is made and soybean responses to plant density and planting date)
  • Multiple soybean input study that includes row spacing, fungicides, insecticides and nutrient management (soil fertility management for soybeans, seed treatment products, risks associated…

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Corn Progression After August 2013 Storm

On August 1, 2013, a severe wind and hail storm damaged 170,000 acres of corn and 86,000 acres of soybeans in Clay County, Nebraska. Corn at the time of the storm was from brown silk-blister. While the storms in the Gibbon/Blue Hill areas occurred a little earlier in the growing season, the following photos show the progression of damage in the event it can be of help to those affected by 2014 storms.

Field on August 2nd that was totaled out and planted to cover crops.

Field on August 2nd that was totaled out and planted to cover crops.  Where crop insurance allowed, producers considered various forage options.

Some producers chose to spray fungicides on fields with more foliar leaf tissue such as this one.

Some producers chose to spray fungicides on fields with more foliar leaf tissue such as this one.

Hail damage to stalks shown 4 days after the storm.

Hail damage to stalks shown 4 days after the storm.

Splitting the stalks open 4 days after the storm resulted in seeing stalk rot already beginning to set in.

Splitting the stalks open 4 days after the storm resulted in seeing stalk rot already beginning to set in.

Corn on August 2nd in blister stage in which hail stones made kernels all mushy on one side of the ears.

Corn on August 2nd in blister stage in which hail stones made kernels all mushy on one side of the ears.

Corn ear on August 6th.  Notice moldy kernels appearing on side where hail damaged ear.

Corn ear on August 6th. Notice moldy kernels appearing on side where hail damaged ear.

 

Six days after the storm, the good side of the ear that didn't receive hail damage.

Six days after the storm, the good side of the ear that didn’t receive hail damage.

Six days after the storm, the side of the ear that received hail damage.

Six days after the storm, the side of the ear that received hail damage.

33 days after the storm, kernels on the "good" side of ears were beginning to sprout.

33 days after the storm, kernels on the “good” side of ears were beginning to sprout.

33 days after the storm:  Diplodia set in creating light-weight ears and brittle kernels.  Sprouting occurring on damaged kernels on sides of ears.

33 days after the storm: Diplodia set in creating light-weight ears and brittle kernels. Sprouting occurring on damaged kernels on sides of ears.  The presence of mold does not automatically mean a mycotoxin is present. Producers also wondered about the safety of feeding moldy grain to livestock.

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